By Mike Mattson - First Edition
CNC Programming: Principles and Applications sets
machinists and machine operators on a systematic path to mastering
G- and M-code programming, guiding them from initial planning
through programming of an actual NC machining job.
The first section of the book lays the foundation by introducing
readers to the fundamentals of CNC machine tools, manufacturing
processes, and necessary technical mathematics. The next four
chapters of the book explain concepts of NC part programming, and
the final section features advanced programming concepts and
techniques for the milling center and lathe.
Readers who have acquired some conventional machining experience,
yet have little or no formal academic training, will find this
how-to and reference book to be particularly well-suited to their
- Short, to-the-point code examples focus attention on specific
topics, while complete part programs enable new CNC programmers to
integrate seemingly disjointed concepts.
- Numerous illustrations explain core principles, allowing the
author to convey concepts visually to readers more accustomed to
the language of graphics vs. dense text.
- AutoEditNC programming software (a specialized code editor and
simulation package) is available free to readers to download for
additional Fanuc-style programming practice.
- The general approach acknowledges the absence of an
industry-wide standard while allowing readers to account for wide
variation in machine tool controls and differences between various
brands of controls.
- Prerequisites for successful NC programming - such as
trigonometry, speeds and feeds, CNC control, and tooling - are
explained in detail for benefit of the reader.
COMPUTER NUMERCIAL CONTROL OF MACHINE TOOLS.
Chapter1: AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLING THE MOVEMENTS OF A
MACHINE TOOL. COMMON TYPES OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS. Milling Machines.
Lathes. Grinders. SYSTEMS VIEW OF CNC. Control System. Dive System.
Feedback System. The CNC System. A STANDARDIZED PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGE. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Chapter2: THE NC PROGRAMMING PROCESS. WRITING A NC PART
PROGRAM. OFFLINE PROGRAMMING ON A DESKTOP PC. TESTING AND DEBUGGING.
TRANSFERRING THE PROGRAM TO THE MACHINE TOOL. PROVING THE NC PROGRAM
ON THE MACHINE TOOL. Steps in Program Proving. Testing Modes. The
First Cut. Program and Setup Checklist. CNC SAFETY. CHAPTER SUMMARY.
Chapter3: NC TOOLING AND MACHINING PROCESSES. CNC AND
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. THE BASIC MACHINING OPERATIONS. Milling.
Turning. Drilling and Reaming. Boring. Tapping. CUTTING TOOLS.
Cutting Tool Materials. Insert Identification. Exotic Tool
Materials. Tool Coatings. CUTTING TOOLS FOR MILLING. End Mills.
Insert-Tooth Cutting Tools. Spindle Style. Spindle Tooling. CUTTING
TOOLS FOR TURNING. OD Turning Tools. Boring Bars. Tool Holding
Methods for Turning. CUTTING TOOLS FOR HOLE-MAKING. Drills and
Reamers. Boring Head. WORKHOLDING TOOLING. The Milling Vise.
Clamping Devices. Fixturing. Workholding for the CNC Lathe. CHAPTER
SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Chapter4: TOOL AND WORKPIECE SETUP. THE CARTESIAN
COORDINATE SYSTEM. Coordinate System on the Workpiece. The Role of
Coordinates in NC Programming. ABSOLUTE VS. INCREMENTAL COORDINATES.
POLAR COORDINATES AND ROTARY AXES. WORKPIECE AND MACHINE OFFSETS.
THE Z-OFFSET AND TOOL LENGTHS. TOOL PRESETTING. CHAPTER SUMMARY.
Chapter5: PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS AND JOB PLANNING.
PROGRAMMING WITH G&M-CODES. STRUCTURE OF A NC PART PROGRAM. WORDS,
ADDRESSES AND NUMBERS. MODAL AND NON-MODAL CODES. PROGRAMMING
GRAMMAR. Grammar and Readability. MORE ON THE SAFE LINE. Safety
Resets. Setup Parameters. PROGRAM ANNOTATION AND SETUP SHEETS.
PLANNING A CNC MATCHING JOB. Study the Workpiece Drawing. Plan the
Operations Setups. WORKHOLDING AND LOCATING PRINCIPLES. The 3-2-1
Locating Principle in Theory. The 3-2-1 Principle in Practice.
SELECTING THE WORK ZERO. PLANNING THE TOOLPATH. CHAPTER SUMMARY.
Chapter6:CODES FOR POSITIONING AND MILLING. CONVENTIONS.
PREPARATORY CODES. G00-RAPID TRAVERSE. G01-CUTTING STRAIGHT LINES.
G02 & G03-CUTTING CIRCULAR ARCS. Specifying the Arc Center with I
and J. Specifying the Arc Center with R. Using Circular
Interpolation. Using Circular Interpolation with a Radius Value.
Programming Arcs in Incremental Coordinates. LEAD IN AND LEAD OUT.
G28-RETURN TO MACHINE HOME POSITION. PROGRAM EXAMPLES. Programming
Example One. Programming Example Two. Programming Example Three.
Programming Example Four. Programming Example Five. Programming
Example Six (06199-97). CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Chapter7: BASIC CODES TO CONTROL MACHINE FUNCTIONS.
UNDERSTANDING M-CODES. M06-TOOL CHANGES. M03, M04 & M05-TURNING THE
SPINDLE ON OR OFF. M07, M08, & M09-COOLANT CONTROL. M30 & M02-ENDING
A PROGRAM. M00 & M01-INTERRUPTING THE PROGRAM EXECUTION. /BLOCK
DELETE. MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS. M19-Oriented Spindle Stop. M97,
M98, & M99-Subprogram Control. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Chapter8: HOLE MAKING CYCLES. INTRODUCING THE CANNED
CYCLE. DRILLING AND REAMING CYCLES. G81-Standard Drilling Cycle.
Initial Plane (G98) v. Retract Plane (G99). Cannned Cycles and
Incremental Programming. Point Depth vs. Full Diameter Depth.
G82-Drilling with Dwell. G83-Peck Drilling. G73-Chip Breaker.
TAPPING CYCLES. G84-Standard Tapping Cycle. G74-Left-handed Tapping
Cycle. BORING CYCLES. G85-Standard Boring Cycle. Boring Cycle
Variations. LOOPING. PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES USING CANNED CYCLES.
Programming Example One. Programming Example Two. Programming
Example Three. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Chapter9: TOOL RADIUS COMPENSATION. WHAT IS TOOL RADIUS
COMPENSATION? REFERENCE LOCATIONS. TOOL LOCATION ON ANGULAR
TOOLPATHS. TOOL LOCATION ON INTERSECTING ARCS AND ANGLES. TOOL
LOCATION ON RADIUS TOOLPATHS. AUTOMATIC TOOL RADIUS COMPENSATION.
Adjusting the Diameter Offset. Lead In and Out with Tool Radius
Compensation. Error Conditions and Limitations of Automatic
Compensation. PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES. Programming Example One-Toolpath
Programmed on Centerline. Programming Example Two-Toolpath
Programmed with Cutter Compensation. Programming Example Three.
Programming Example Four. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Chapter10: ADVANCED PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS. SPECIFYING AN
NEW WORK ZERO WITH G92. Using G92. Programming Example Using G92
Work Shift. AUTOMATION WITH SUB-PROGRAMS (M98) AND SUB-ROUTINES
(M97). Programming Example Using Sub-Programs-One. Programming
Example Using Sub-Programs-Two. PROGRAMMING WITH A ROTARY AXIS.
4th-Axis Programming Example-One. 4th-Axis Programming Example-Two.
CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Chapter11: LATHE PROGRAMMING. INTRODUCTION TO THE CNC
TURNING CENTER. Programming Standards. Lathe Axes Designation.
Programming on the Diameter or Radius? Spindle Rotation. TURNING
TOOL SETUP. Tool Edge or Tool Center. Limitations of Tool Tip
Programming. BASIC TURNING OPERATIONS. OD Turning and Facing. Taper
Turnming. ID Boring. Circular Arcs. Tool Nose Radius Compensation.
Tool Orientation. COMMON CANNED CYCLES. Threading. Drilling.
Grooving. Auto Turning Canned Cycles. SUMMARY OF TURNING CODES.
CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Chapter12: CAD/CAM. COMPUTER-AIDED ANYTHING (CAA). WHAT IS
CAD/CAM SOFTWARE? DESCRIPTION OF CAD/CAM COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS.
CAD Module. CAM Module. Geometry v. Toolpath. Tool and Material
Libraries. Verification. Post Processor. Portability. SOFTWARE
ISSUES AND TRENDS. Other Classes of Software. CHAPTER SUMMARY.
Chapter13: MATHEMATICS FOR NC PROGRAMMING. INTRODUCTION.
BASIC CONCEPTS: SPEAKING THE LANGUAGE. Equalities and Equations.
Order of Operations. Exponents and Radicals. Operations with
Exponents. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION. ESSENTIAL ALGEBRA. UNIT CONVERSIONS.
GEOMETRY. Properties of Intersecting Lines. Tangency. TRIGONOMETRY.
The Pythagorean Theorem-The Precursor to Trigonometry. Right
Triangle Trigonometry. Oblique Triangle Trigonometry. The Law of
Sine. The Law of Cosines. Solving an Oblique Triangle. ILLUSTRATED
APPLICATIONS. Speeds and Feeds. Coolant to Add to a Tank. Surface
Finish Conversions. Inspecting an Angle. Center Distance for Holes
on an Angle. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS.
Appendix A: G & M-CODES REFERENCE.
Appendix B: REFERENCE INFORMATION. SPEEDS AND FEEDS. Speed
and Feed Formulas. MATCHING DATA. UNITS AND CONVERSIONS FACTORS.
MATHEMATICS. Pythagorean Theorem. Law of Sines. Law Of Cosines.
ENGINEERING MATERIALS. DOCUMENTATION TOOLS. Manufacturing
Operations. Setup Sheet. Programming Manuscript.
358 Pages - 7-3/8 x 9-1/4 in.
Paperback, 368 pages
CNC Programming Principles and Applications